Validating AOx Effectiveness

Introduction

tubes1r-504x600OriginClear’s patent-pending Advanced Oxidation Process, AOx™, removes minute contaminants that remain in potable water after treatment.

For our purposes, potable water is any water which has no suspended solids or oils, and has been treated with filtration and other final-stage methods. It may include:

  • Domestic drinking water (tap water)
  • Bottled waters
  • Agricultural irrigation water
  • Water in hot tubs and pools.

We call these contaminants “microtoxins”, because, even in low doses, many have the potential to affect the immune and endocrine systems in humans and animals.

A wide array of these compounds exists. We are currently validating AOx on the most widely-known microtoxins, following best practices for scientific sampling. We will continue to publish results of our testing as it progresses.

AOx is an effective electrochemical barrier to remove the last fractions of microtoxins, after all other methods have been used.

Method

We work with two types of testing samples:

  1. Artificially high in contaminants (as used in laboratory animal testing), or
  2. In very low concentrations as is typically found in the food chain or in our drinking water.

We implement AOx in patent-pending designs which use two kinds of electrochemical reactions to treat microtoxins: Direct Oxidation (DO) and Indirect Oxidation (IO).

20140425_4831r-3203392500-O-325x206Direct Oxidation

Using Direct Oxidation (DO) in a configuration related to our latest patent we have successfully treated microtoxins in as little as 45 seconds, achieving real-time and inline processing.

We use our patented inline reactors for DO. These are arrays of tubes with the anode nested inside the cathode. The gap between anode and cathode is very small, which makes for an effective reaction even without treating the water for conductivity.

Procedure:

  1. Fill feed tank with test solution.
  2. Pump solution into inline reactor array.
  3. Control flow to obtain between 45 seconds and three minutes of residence time.
  4. Solution may be recirculated multiple times to approximate real-world results at scale, where mazes of reactor tubes are used to enable longer residence time.

  Indirect Oxidation

Indirect Oxidation (IO) is a lengthier method. This may be required for waters contaminated with stubborn toxins such as cryptosporidium cysts. It is often deployed in addition to Direct Oxidation.

While Direct Oxidation uses continuous tubes for reaction, IO employs a reactor cell with a proprietary design for mesh electrodes lining the bottom of a treatment tank. Through hydrolysis, the electrodes produce a gaseous cloud which contains an effective concentration of oxidizing agents.

Procedure:

  1. Fill the reactor cell with test solution.
  2. Power the reactor, and treat for between 30 and 90 minutes. There is no recirculation.
  3. Take samples quarterly within the allotted test time. For example, if we treat for 60 minutes, we sample every 15 minutes. Our test series will determine the optimum residence time.

Synergistic Effect

We deploy both reaction types to test each contaminant. In the lab, we test DO and IO separately to benchmark relative efficiency. Field designs may combine DO and IO for maximum effectiveness under challenging operating conditions.

We test continuously using our in-house chemical tests, or our mass spectrometer. In addition, we utilize a certified laboratory to analyze the results of each major test before it is published.

These third party tests have confirmed the effectiveness of AOx in reducing low-concentration microcontaminants to the non-detectable level, potentially making them Microtoxin Free™.

tubes2-325x215The Test Series

This test series focuses on a series of contaminants present in drinking water at a microscopic level.

Glyphosate is world’s most-used pesticide and the key ingredient in Monsanto’s Roundup®. Because its toxicity is still controversial, many filtration manufacturers omit treatment claims for glyphosate. To remedy this omission, we began with this contaminant, which is present in up to 70% of US drinking water.

Reports on the full test series follow. We welcome your suggestions — please use this contact form and we will respond quickly.

Click to view the microtoxin test series now.

Advanced Oxidation (AOx)

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